Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Zoarcoidei
(Eelpouts and pricklebacks) > Pholidae
(Gunnels) > Apodichthyinae
Etymology: Apodichthys: Greek, apodos = without feet + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 8 m (Ref. 96339). Temperate; 59°N - 33°N, 155°W - 118°W
Eastern Pacific: Kodiak Island, Alaska to Santa Barbara Island, southern California, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 40 - 44;
soft rays: 38 - 42. Caudal rounded, somewhat elevated dorsally; pectorals small and rounded (Ref. 6885). Color variable- from green through brown to red; dark dots spaced in a broken line along midside of body, sometimes also light spots; narrow dark line down and back from eye to operculum, sometimes through eye; some fresh specimens with a silvery line margined with orange and black from middle of maxillary through lower part of eye to nape and opercle (Ref. 6885).
Found in intertidal areas, especially in tide pools (Ref. 2850). May remain out of the water under rocks or seaweeds (Ref. 31184). Feeds on small crustaceans and mollusks (Ref. 6885). Pairs are found coiled around egg masses (Ref. 4925). Breathes air when out of water (Ref. 31184).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 101786). Adhesive eggs attached to a nest substrate are brooded by both parents (Ref. 101786).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.8 - 12.8, mean 10 °C (based on 180 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .