Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 20 - 100 m (Ref. 2683), usually 20 - 100 m (Ref. 54930). Tropical; 15°C - 22°C (Ref. 54930); 35°N - 19°S, 26°W - 14°E (Ref. 54930)
Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Angola. Sometimes ranging south to northern Namibia (Ref. 27121).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 24.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7097); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 27584)
Adults are sometimes found near the surface. They form schools (Ref. 2683). Commercial fishing trawlers catch this species at depths up to 650 m (J. Luyben, pers. Comm. 10/02). Adults feed mainly on crustaceans (Ref. 4233). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4233)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.4 - 27.9, mean 24.4 °C (based on 146 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00677 - 0.01860), b=2.94 (2.80 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.38 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.26).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .