Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 100 m (Ref. 13628), usually ? - 70 m (Ref. 55314). Subtropical; 35°N - 8°N, 99°W - 60°W (Ref. 55314)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Yucatan, Mexico; northern coast of South America (Ref. 5217). Absent in the West Indies.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 44.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits silty, sandy, or rubble bottoms (Ref. 9710). Feeds on fishes (Ref. 13628). Possesses electric organs located in a specialized pouch behind the eyes. Can discharge up to 50 volts (Ref. 10576).The electric organ discharge (EOD) rate depends on the temperature: about 500 Hz at 35°C and 50 Hz at 15°C (corresponding to the annual temperature range of the habitat of this species) (Ref. 10011). Cleithral spine with venom gland (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.8 - 27.8, mean 25.4 °C (based on 428 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00181 - 0.01153), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 31.3 [17.2, 59.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.791 [0.480, 1.395] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.6 [18.6, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.167 [0.097, 0.291] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.5 [9.3, 34.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 91.8 [30.4, 258.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.779 [0.517, 1.202] mg/100g (wet weight);