Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangaria/misc
(Various families in series Carangaria) > Polynemidae
Etymology: Polydactylus: Greek, poly = a lot of + greek, daktylos = finger (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 60 m (Ref. 91172). Subtropical; 34°N - 7°S, 118°W - 77°W (Ref. 57343)
Eastern Pacific: Los Angeles Harbor in California, USA to off Paita, Peru; rare north of Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
soft rays: 12 - 14. Body and fins yellowish; no stripes or spots. Anterior parts of lower jaw with villiform teeth extending onto lateral surface, adjacent part of lip poorly developed in large specimens. Vomerine teeth present. Maxilla covered with small deciduous scales. Pectoral filaments 9. Lateral line unbranched, extending to upper end of caudal fin lobe. Swim bladder absent (Ref. 45049).
Inhabits coastal waters and estuaries, on sand and mud bottom (Ref. 9332). Also found along sandy beaches (Ref. 57343). Esteemed food fish in the tropical eastern Pacific (Ref. 57343).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Motomura, H., S. Kimura and Y. Iwatsuki, 2002. Revision of the threadfin genus Polydactylus (Perciformes, Polynemidae) from the eastern Pacific Ocean. Ichthyol. Res. 49(4):358-366. (Ref. 45049)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 28.6, mean 27.2 °C (based on 32 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00393 - 0.01110), b=3.06 (2.91 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.51 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .