Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Embiotocidae
Etymology: Phanerodon: Greek, phaner, -eros = visible + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 229 m (Ref. 96339), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 39°N - 27°N, 125°W - 114°W
Eastern Pacific: Bodega Bay in northern California, USA to central Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Adults inhabit inshore and offshore waters (Ref. 2850). From surface to 229 m (Ref. 96339). Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205). Seldom caught by fishers (Ref. 2850).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.5 - 14.8, mean 11.3 °C (based on 10 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00858 - 0.04433), b=2.97 (2.77 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 95.4 [54.4, 187.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.13 [0.74, 1.90] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [18.0, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.342 [0.219, 0.534] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.7 [13.2, 46.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.5 [4.3, 36.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.835 [0.571, 1.200] mg/100g (wet weight);