Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Embiotocidae
Etymology: Hypsurus: Greek, hypsi = high + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Agassiz.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 41°N - 30°N, 125°W - 115°W (Ref. 96339)
Eastern Pacific: Cape Mendocino in northern California, USA to northern Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Adults occur in rocky shores, often at edges of kelp beds, occasionally over sand but not in surf (Ref. 2850). Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205). Caught mostly by rocky shore fishermen. Aggregates in the fall.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12 - 17.9, mean 13.5 °C (based on 10 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00842 - 0.04514), b=3.02 (2.81 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 92.7 [52.9, 182.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.11 [0.73, 1.88] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [18.0, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.341 [0.218, 0.532] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.9 [13.3, 47.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.4 [4.3, 36.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.827 [0.566, 1.189] mg/100g (wet weight);