Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Embiotocidae
Etymology: Hyperprosopon: Greek, hyper = over + Greek, prosopon = face, snout of animal (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 18 m (Ref. 2850). Subtropical; 52°N - 26°N, 130°W - 113°W
Eastern Pacific: Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada to central Baja California in Mexico, including Guadalupe Island (off northern central Baja California).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 56049)
Live in surf on sand beaches and over sand near rocks, often around piers. Often occur in dense schools. Feed on small crustaceans. Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205). Usually bear 5-12 young. An important game species.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 10.7 - 19, mean 12.8 °C (based on 115 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00854 - 0.04453), b=2.96 (2.76 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=1; tmax=6).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100).