Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 55 m (Ref. 13121), usually 5 - 20 m (Ref. 13121). Tropical; 41°N - 25°S, 98°W - 34°W (Ref. 55200)
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to Santa Catarina, Brazil (Ref. 57756), including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Eastern Central Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 12.4  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 16 - 17. With two broad black bars on side of body and a third bar basally in soft portion of dorsal fin which extends onto caudal peduncle; broad black submarginal bands in the median fins; pelvic fins black except for the spine (Ref. 13442).
Inhabit coral reefs. Occur singly or in pairs. Feed on polychaete worms, coral polyps, crustaceans and mollusk eggs. Oviparous (Ref. 205), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Adults may form plankton-feeding aggregations of up to 20 individuals, and occasionally clean other reef fishes which join the group, such as grunts, parrotfishes and surgeon fishes. (Ref: 40093). Generally common (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).
Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 28, mean 27.2 °C (based on 158 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01428 - 0.03509), b=3.02 (2.89 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 103 [61, 178] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.813 [0.526, 1.402] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [18.1, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.15 [0.09, 0.24] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.7 [15.4, 56.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 50.6 [16.2, 158.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.34 [0.90, 1.97] mg/100g (wet weight);