Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Pseudupeneus: Greek, pseudes = false + Peneus, the name of a river. More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 60 m (Ref. 91172). Subtropical
Eastern Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to Chile; one specimen was caught at the artificially warm outfall at the San Onofre (southern California, USA) nuclear power plant.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Adults inhabit sandy and muddy bottoms near the coast and in deep waters as well (Ref. 9322).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.7 - 28.9, mean 25.8 (based on 86 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00560 - 0.01236), b=3.17 (3.05 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .