Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 91 m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical; 37°N - 4°N, 98°W - 51°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina to Florida in USA and the entire Gulf of Mexico to Venezuela; possibly to Brazil. The name Equetus acuminatus was misapplied to this species.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Found over soft bottoms (Ref. 9626) of coastal waters. Secretive but approachable (Ref. 9710). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35408).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., B.B. Collette and B.E. Luckhurst, 1999. Fishes of Bermuda: history, zoogeography, annotated checklist, and identification keys. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 4. 424 p. (Ref. 35505)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23 - 27.9, mean 25.6 °C (based on 322 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00276 - 0.01201), b=3.11 (2.93 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 62.3 [27.7, 133.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.974 [0.510, 1.833] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.1 [18.7, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.151 [0.074, 0.296] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.2 [8.4, 41.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 38.5 [9.8, 162.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.12 [0.66, 1.89] mg/100g (wet weight);