Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Gerreidae
Etymology: More on author: Goode.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated. Tropical; 33°N - 33°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, North Carolina (USA) and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Adults prefer sandy shores. Young are more widespread.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.9 - 28, mean 26 °C (based on 412 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00535 - 0.01553), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 74.1 [41.3, 149.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.784 [0.441, 1.289] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [17.2, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.152 [0.093, 0.262] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.4 [20.7, 59.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 52.5 [15.5, 153.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.45 [0.90, 2.07] mg/100g (wet weight);