Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Bramidae
Etymology: Taractichthys: Greek, taraktes = confusion; for the pletora of names that have been applied to this fish + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335); longipinnis: longipinnis meaning long-finned (Ref. 4525). More on author: Lowe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 500 m (Ref. 89422), usually 42 - 200 m (Ref. 82736). Subtropical; 10°C - ? (Ref. 82736); 47°N - 68°S, 98°W - 21°E
Eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Norway southward to off Pointe Noire, Gulf of Guinea and Namibia; questionably reaching False Bay, South Africa (Ref. 4388). Absent from the Mediterranean (Ref. 4936). Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada and northern Gulf of Mexico to Puerto Rico (Ref. 7251), Bermuda, northern South America to southeastern Brazil (Ref. 82736). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6697)
Generally oceanic and presumably epipelagic. Often solitary but occasionally found in small schools close to shore (Ref. 82736). Feed on shrimps and squids (Ref. 82736). Young are present in all seasons (Ref. 6697). Flesh considered very good (Ref. 3576).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gomes, J., 1990. Bramidae. p. 758-764. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNCT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4936)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8 - 26.3, mean 17.6 °C (based on 589 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.00758 - 0.04173), b=2.96 (2.76 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.62 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 31.2 [15.8, 73.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 1 [1, 2] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.9 [18.1, 21.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.401 [0.231, 0.679] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.3 [9.9, 44.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24.7 [6.7, 90.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.51 [0.29, 0.85] mg/100g (wet weight);