Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Subtropical; 33°N - 18°S, 119°W - 70°W
Eastern Pacific: San Clemente in southern California, USA to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands; rare north of Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 163 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9326); max. published weight: 51.7 kg (Ref. 4699)
Inhabits shallow inshore areas, frequents sandy shores along beaches. Juveniles occurs in tide pools. Exploited on a local level and marketed fresh (Ref. 9324).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20.7 - 28.5, mean 25.8 °C (based on 56 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00415 - 0.02764), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 44.4 [24.7, 81.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.09 [0.68, 1.69] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.1 [19.3, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.368 [0.244, 0.564] g/100g ; Selenium = 52 [26, 98] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.94 [2.98, 21.52] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.448 [0.308, 0.643] mg/100g (wet weight);