Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Echeneidae
Etymology: Phtheirichthys: Greek, ptheiros, a fish that parasites other + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 86942). Subtropical
Worldwide in tropical and subtropical waters. Western Atlantic: South Carolina, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to northern South America (Ref. 7251). Western Central Pacific: Guam (Ref. 35720).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Rare (Ref. 4389), oceanic species. Most often found attached to barracudas but also to other fishes and sea turtles. Clings to body of host and also found inside gill chambers.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1986. Echeneidae. p. 662-664. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4389)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.9 - 29.1, mean 26.9 °C (based on 39944 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00269 (0.00108 - 0.00670), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .