Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 300 m (Ref. 7321), usually 20 - 90 m (Ref. 7251). Tropical; 27°N - 8°N
Western Central Atlantic: southern Florida, USA and Bahamas to Venezuela; reported to reach Suriname (Ref. 13608). Eastern Central Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea. Reported from Cape Verde (Ref. 27000).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9626)
Adults prefer exposed deep reefs and rocky outcroppings (Ref. 7251). Eggs are incubated orally by both parents (Ref. 240). This is the only species in the genus Apogon with mouthbrooding done by males and females (Ref. 85456).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Biparental mouthbrooders (Ref. 240, 58875). Spawning may occur throughout the year (Ref. 39366). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205). This is the only species in the genus Apogon with mouthbrooding done by males and females (Ref. 85456).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.4 - 28, mean 26.5 °C (based on 260 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00523 - 0.02406), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=1,900).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 140 [83, 323] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.963 [0.601, 1.492] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [18.4, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.178 [0.114, 0.282] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.9 [16.5, 55.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 79 [29, 210] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.68 [1.18, 2.37] mg/100g (wet weight);