Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Percoidei
() > Percidae
(Perches) > Luciopercinae
Etymology: vitreus: vitrea meaning glassy, alluding to the nature of the large, silvery eyes (Ref. 1998). More on author: Mitchill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 27 m (Ref. 11002). Subtropical; 1°C - 29°C (Ref. 12741); 70°N - 30°N, 137°W - 69°W (Ref. 86798)
North America: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Arctic, and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Northwest Territories in Canada, and south to Alabama and Arkansas in the USA; possibly native to Mobile Bay basin. Widely introduced elsewhere in the USA, including Atlantic and Pacific drainages.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 42.9, range 36 - 43.18 cm
Max length : 107 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1998); common length : 54.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 11.3 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 29 years (Ref. 12193)
Occurs in lakes, pools, backwaters, and runs of medium to large rivers. Frequently found in clear water, usually near brush (Ref. 86798). Prefers large, shallow lakes with high turbidity (Ref. 9988, 10294). Rarely found in brackish waters (Ref. 1998). Feeds at night, mainly on insects and fishes (prefers yellow perch and freshwater drum but will take any fish available) but feeds on crayfish, snails, frogs, mudpuppies, and small mammals when fish and insects are scarce (Ref. 1998). Although not widely farmed commercially for consumption, large numbers are hatched and raised for stocking lakes for game fishing (Ref. 9988). Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Spawning occurs in small groups (a larger female and two smaller males or two females and up to six males) that engage in chasing, circular swimming, and fin erection. The group then ascends to shallow water, females roll on their side, and eggs and sperm are released. Deposition of eggs usually occurs in a single night (Ref. 1998). Larvae pelagic (Ref. 7471).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00501 - 0.00872), b=3.14 (3.06 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.7 (3.0 - 4.4) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 53 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.05-0.45; tm=2-4; tmax=29; Fec=41,061).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .