Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Percoidei
(Perchs) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Percina: Latin, diminutive of perch = perch (Ref. 45335); phoxocephala: From the words phoxo, meaning tapering, and cephala, head (Ref. 10294).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; 46°N - 33°N
North America: found only in Mississippi River basin from Ohio to northeastern South Dakota and south to northern Alabama and southern Oklahoma in the USA; and in Lake Winnebago system (in Lake Michigan drainage) in Wisconsin, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 6.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 3.00 years (Ref. 12193)
Inhabits gravel runs and riffles of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 5723, 10294). Feeds on mayfly nymphs (baetids, heptageniids), midge larvae, and hydropsychid caddisfly larvae (Ref. 10294).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00331 - 0.01203), b=3.15 (2.97 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=3; Fec=50-720).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .