Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); stigmaeum: stigmaeum meaning speckled (Ref. 10294). More on author: Jordan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; 38°N - 31°N
North America: in Mississippi River basin from western Virginia to southeastern Kansas, and south to Louisiana in the USA; Gulf Slope drainages from Mobile Bay and Pensacola Bay in Georgia, Alabama and Florida to Sabine River in Louisiana in the USA; and in Clinch and Powell rivers in Virginia and Tennessee, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 4.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Inhabit clear sandy and rocky pools of creeks and small to medium, usually fast, rivers (Ref. 5723). Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00237 - 0.01272), b=3.14 (2.94 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .