Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes
(Silversides) > Atherinopsidae
(Neotropical silversides) > Menidiinae
Etymology: Menidia: Greek, menoeides, -es, -es = like a half noon shape (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 85409). Temperate; 1°C - 33°C (Ref. 35682); 60°N - 25°N, 82°W - 52°W
Western Atlantic: Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to northeastern Florida in USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 11.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 2.00 years (Ref. 12193)
Adults feed on copepods, mysids, shrimps, small squids and marine worms (Ref. 7251); also eggs of their own species (Ref. 5951). Preyed upon by striped bass (Ref. 7251) and bluefish (chief predators) (Ref. 5951). Oviparous, eggs are deposited on the substrate during a spawning run along the shore (Ref. 38155). Silversides are sometimes used as live food for trout (Ref. 7251).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.7 - 24.5, mean 8.8 °C (based on 225 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00282 - 0.00978), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.1-1.4; tmax=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 136 [59, 273] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.55, 2.44] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [15.8, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 1.21 [0.40, 3.47] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.3 [4.1, 32.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.6 [4.1, 73.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.17 [0.79, 1.78] mg/100g (wet weight);