Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 15 - ?; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 4°C - 22°C (Ref. 2060); 47°N - 28°N
North America: Eastern Rivers of USA and Canada. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 10.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 790.00 g (Ref. 4699)
Rocky and sandy pools of creeks and small to medium rivers; rocky and vegetated lake margins (Ref. 5723). Adults feed on terrestrial insects and both immature and adult aquatic insects, particularly larger varieties such as mayflies and dragonflies. Juveniles consume benthic organisms such as dipteran larvae (Ref. 10294).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
The female lays around 1000 eggs in the depression created by the male who later takes care of eggs and young alone (Ref. 26281).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 1986)
Gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00744 - 0.02681), b=3.11 (2.95 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=1000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .