Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Centriscidae
(Snipefishes and shrimpfishes) > Macroramphosinae
Etymology: Macroramphosus: Greek, makros = great + Greek, rhamphos = beak, bill (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 25 - 600 m (Ref. 9563), usually 50 - 350 m (Ref. 47377). Subtropical; 66°N - 43°S, 180°W - 180°E
Western Atlantic: Gulf of Maine to Argentina (Ref. 37039). Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Indo-West Pacific. Mainly in temperate latitudes between 20° and 40°N. Presence in Somalia to be confirmed (Ref. 30573).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4508); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4508)
Found between the seabed and midwater on the lower continental shelf, over sand. Juveniles found in oceanic surface waters (Ref. 2683); adults normally live close to the bottom (normally in 50-350 m depth (Ref. 47377)). Gregarious. Juveniles feed mainly on pelagic invertebrates, mainly copepods, while adults feed on bottom invertebrates (Ref. 6732). Seems to be sympatric with Macroramphosus gracilis (Lowe, 1839) all around the world (Ref. 89357).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ehrich, S., 1990. Macroramphosidae. p. 656-657. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4508)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.5 - 22.7, mean 13.6 °C (based on 2092 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7502 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00666 - 0.01192), b=2.83 (2.75 - 2.91), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.36-0.46; tmax=6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 208 [98, 406] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.42 [0.88, 2.39] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.5, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.328 [0.204, 0.556] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.5 [15.8, 63.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.5 [5.6, 38.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.08 [0.75, 1.54] mg/100g (wet weight);