Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 22 m (Ref. 26938), usually ? - 4 m (Ref. 26938). Subtropical; 40°N - 8°N
Western Atlantic: disjunct distribution from Bermuda and Chesapeake Bay (USA), including the northern Gulf of Mexico, the Bahamas, and the western Caribbean Sea (Ref. 37039), to Panama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27549)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 26-35. Preorbital bone appears as broad plate in front of eye (Ref. 26938).
Abundant in seagrass beds along coasts. Northern populations move offshore during colder months (Ref. 26938). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Feeds mostly on small grass shrimp and other small crustaceans (Ref. 93252).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205, 53335).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.5 - 28.2, mean 27.1 °C (based on 614 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00033 (0.00014 - 0.00077), b=3.14 (2.96 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .