Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic. Temperate; 52°N - 41°N
Western Atlantic: Newfoundland, Canada to Massachusetts, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5951); common length : 3.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 1.00 years (Ref. 12193)
Adults occur near shore in beds of vegetation, often around floating vegetation a short distance from shore. Rarely enter fresh water (Ref. 7251). Males build, guard and aerate the nest where the eggs are deposited (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Males build, guard and aerate the nest where the eggs are deposited (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.3 - 9, mean 6.2 °C (based on 188 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00404 - 0.02714), b=3.07 (2.85 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .