Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Gadidae
(Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Eleginus: Greek, eleginos, -ou = a fish of the Nile (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous; depth range 0 - 300 m (Ref. 50550). Polar; 75°N - 30°N, 124°E - 123°W (Ref. 54430)
Arctic to North Pacific: Chemulpo in North Korea (Yellow Sea) in the southwest to Sitka, Alaska in the southeast. Beyond the Bering Strait from Cape Lisburne in Chukchi Sea and east to Dease Strait (south coast of Victoria Island). Precise delimitation of the range depends on additional taxonomic study.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 30.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 56527)
soft rays: 39 - 47;
Vertebrae: 57 - 64. Distinguished by the presence of 3 dorsal and 2 anal fins, a lower jaw that is shorter than the upper, a chin barbel that is no longer than half the eye diameter, and a space between the second and third dorsal fins that is equal to or longer than the eye diameter (Ref. 27547). Lateral line curved in front, ending under the second dorsal fin (Ref. 27547); head with no lateral line pores (Ref. 1371). Expanded parapophyses swollen and hollow, beginning on about the vertebral centrum 9 or 10, containing outpouchings of the swim bladder (Ref. 1371). Second pelvic ray produced; caudal truncate or slightly emarginate (Ref. 27547). Grayish brown above, upper part of sides paler, sometimes with a silvery-violet shading, often mottled with indistinct darker blotches; lower sides and belly yellowish to silver white; fins dusky, dorsal and caudal with white edges (Ref. 27547).
Occurs in shallow coastal waters (Ref. 1371). Enters rivers and may go considerable distances upstream, but usually remaining within regions of tidal influence (Ref. 1371, 27547). Adults exhibit seasonal movements: inshore during winter for purposes of spawning and offshore during summer for feeding (Ref. 1371). Juveniles and adults are opportunistic epibenthic feeders; juveniles feed on fish and small benthic crustaceans (Ref. 1371). Taxonomic problems to be solved.
Spawns 5-7 times in its life, or even 9-10 times for those living 10-14 years. Fecundity varies with geographical region. It decreases from east to west in the European Arctic and from south to north in western Pacific waters. Throughout its distribution area, spawning occurs during January-February in coastal zones of bays and inlets on sand-gravel substrate and in strong tidal currents.
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -1.5 - 5.9, mean 0.9 °C (based on 952 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00425 - 0.01076), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.1 (4.4 - 7.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 22 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-3; Fec=4,900).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .