Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes
(Cusk eels) > Bythitidae
Etymology: Stygnobrotula: Greek, stygnos, -ou = sad, hostile + Latin, brotula = little bud, shoot (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated. Tropical; - 21°S
Western Atlantic: Bahamas to Brazil (Ref. 40101).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
A common species inhabiting shallow rocky ledges and reefs (Ref. 7251), found deep within the reef during the day (Ref. 9710). A live-bearing species (Ref. 5521).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins, 1999. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 34024)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.9 - 28.2, mean 27.2 °C (based on 482 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming Fec < 100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 165 [91, 330] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.09 [0.67, 1.71] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [14.7, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.186 [0.107, 0.327] g/100g ; Selenium = 28 [14, 51] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 84 [29, 244] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.07 [1.41, 3.00] mg/100g (wet weight);