Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes
(Cusk eels) > Ophidiidae
(Cusk-eels) > Ophidiinae
Etymology: Parophidion: Greek, para in the side of + Greek, ophidion, diminitive of ophis = serpent (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Subtropical
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Bahamas and southern Florida (USA) to northern South America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Scales on body in anguilloid pattern, somewhat overlapping, interorbital region scaled, opercle naked, cheeks, top of head forward to centre of interorbital region scaled; ethmoid spine reduced to a low bump; gill chamber and guts pale; no pyloric caeca; males with posterior opening on swim bladder; the two pelvic fin rays equally long or very nearly so (Ref. 34024).
Uncommon species (Ref. 34024). Adults occur in shallow coastal waters, usually in turtle grass beds (Ref. 7251). Oviparous, with oval pelagic eggs floating in a gelatinous mass (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins, 1999. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 34024)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.4 - 28, mean 27.2 (based on 214 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00269 (0.00128 - 0.00567), b=3.16 (2.98 - 3.34), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .