Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Bregmacerotidae
Etymology: Bregmaceros: Greek, bregma = front of the head + Greek, keras, -atos = horn (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Goode & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical
Central Atlantic: Southwards to South Africa in the eastern part. Records outside central western Atlantic should be different species (H.Ho, pers.comm. 2/2017).
All reports in the Mediterranean Sea before 2017 are misidentifications for Bregmaceros nectabanus Whitley, 1941.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4096); common length : 6.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47377)
Generally oceanic. Feed on zooplankton and phytoplankton, especially crustaceans (Ref. 6735). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 6735).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., 1990. Bregmacerotidae. p. 524-525. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4496)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.1 - 27.6, mean 22.4 °C (based on 1483 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00183 - 0.00755), b=3.19 (3.00 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.24 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .