Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Bregmacerotidae
Etymology: Bregmaceros: Greek, bregma = front of the head + Greek, keras, -atos = horn (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Goode & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Central Atlantic: Southwards to South Africa in the eastern part. Records outside central western Atlantic should be different species (H.Ho, pers.comm. 2/2017).
All reports in the Mediterranean Sea before 2017 are misidentifications for Bregmaceros nectabanus Whitley, 1941.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4096); common length : 6.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47377)
Generally oceanic. Feed on zooplankton and phytoplankton, especially crustaceans (Ref. 6735). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 6735).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., 1990. Bregmacerotidae. p. 524-525. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4496)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.1 - 27.6, mean 22.4 °C (based on 1483 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00187 - 0.00772), b=3.19 (3.00 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.24 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .