Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 500 m (Ref. 5951), usually 20 - ? m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical; 45°N - 8°N, 87°W - 59°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Venezuela, including eastern portion of the Gulf of Mexico and continental coastal regions of the Caribbean Sea, with a single record from the Bahamas. Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
3 prominent black spots on side, each surrounded by lighter ring (Ref. 26938).
Inhabits rocky and coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Largest species of frogfish in western Atlantic (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20.6 - 28, mean 26 °C (based on 316 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.68 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec assumed to be > 10,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 32.9 [16.7, 65.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.659 [0.371, 1.292] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.4 [17.9, 23.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.198 [0.081, 0.462] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.1 [6.0, 33.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 69.2 [17.2, 269.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.734 [0.426, 1.241] mg/100g (wet weight);