Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Percopsiformes
(Trout-perches, pirate perches and cavef) > Percopsidae
Etymology: Percopsis: Greek, perke = perch + Greek, opsis = appearance (Ref. 45335); omiscomaycus: omiscomaycus which is probably an Algonkian Indian name that includes the root 'trout' (Ref. 1998) More on author: Walbaum.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; depth range 10 - 61 m (Ref. 27547), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 68°N - 37°N
North America: Atlantic and Arctic basins throughout most of Canada, and south to Potomac River drainage in Virginia, USA; Yukon River drainage in Yukon Territory and Alaska; Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins south to West Virginia, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, North Dakota and Montana in the USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 8 - 15.4 cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 8.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 10348)
(total): 1 - 3;
soft rays: 5 - 9;
Vertebrae: 33 - 36. Distinguished by the presence of an adipose fin; small weak spines in the dorsal and anal spines; rough ctenoid scales; and pectoral fins reaching well behind the bases of pelvic fins (Ref. 27547). Gill rakers short, stubby mounds with small teeth; lateral line nearly straight (Ref. 27547). Pale yellowish to silvery, often almost transparent; with a row of about 10 dark spots along midline of back, 10 or 11 spots along lateral line, and another row of spots high on sides above lateral line; fins transparent (Ref. 27547).
Occurs in lakes, deep flowing pools of creeks, and rivers (Ref. 5723). Usually found over sand (Ref. 5723). Moves into the shallows of lakes at night to feed and moves back to deeper water as dawn approaches (Ref. 1998). Feeds on insect larvae, amphipods and fishes (Ref. 1998). Important forage fish (Ref. 1998).
Spawning adults move inshore to shallow water or into shallow tributaries of lakes (Ref. 10348). Two or more males cluster with a single female near the surface. They press close to the female, often breaking the surface of the water, and eggs and milt are released (Ref. 27547). Some populations spawn exclusively at night (Ref. 10348), but others show no variation from daytime spawning (Ref. 10349). There is often, perhaps usually, heavy postspawning mortality (Ref. 27547).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00248 - 0.01401), b=3.12 (2.90 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.51 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-3; tmax=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .