Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Percopsiformes
(Trout-perches, pirate perches and cavef) > Amblyopsidae
Etymology: Amblyopsis: Greek, amblys = darkness + Greek, ops = shape (Ref. 45335). More on author: DeKay.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; non-migratory. Temperate; 39°N - 37°N
North America: Indiana and Kentucky, U.S.A.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 6.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8 - 11;
Vertebrae: 29 - 30. Pink-white. No eyes (vestigial eye tissues under skin). Extremely small pelvic fins (rarely absent). Large, broad head. Caudal fin with 4-6 rows of papillae; 11-13 branched caudal rays.
Blind and depigmented. Despite the lack of eyes it does respond to light and moves away from it (scotophilia). Inhabits subterranean water or caves which have consolidated mud-rock substrates in shoals and silt-sand substrates in pools but is more often found in caves with uniform silt-sand substrates (Ref. 34868). Has low reproduction rate and broods eggs in gill cavity for up to 4-5 months (Ref. 557; 34868; 27795). Can live for 2 years without food because of low metabolic rate (Ref. 5326). Top predator.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Female incubates eggs in gill cavities (Ref. 7471).
Romero, A. and L. Bennis, 1998. Threatened fishes of the world: Amblyopsis spelaea DeKay, 1842 (Amblyopsidae). Environ. Biol. Fishes 51(4):420. (Ref. 27795)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6338 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.39 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.20; low reproductive rate (Refs. 34868; 27795).).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .