Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Stromateidae
Etymology: Peprilus: Greek, peprilos, paprax, certain fish from Tracia.
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 15 - 136 m (Ref. 36453). Subtropical; - 38°S
Western Atlantic: northeastern USA to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, sometimes reaching Argentina.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 12.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
(total): 2 - 5;
soft rays: 35 - 45. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body very deep (its depth 1.6 to 1.8 in total length), bounded by even curves and strongly compressed; snout short and blunt, about equal to eye diameter; mouth small, tip of maxillary just reaching to below eye margin; teeth in jaws weak, in 1 row, those in the upper jaw slightly recurved, simple and pointed; dorsal and anal fin bases very long (about equal in length), both fins falcate, the length of their longest rays greater than head and preceded by 3 weak spines; caudal fin stiff and deeply forked, both its lobes longer than head; pectoral fins narrow and much longer than head; pelvic fins absent; no conspicuous series of pores below dorsal fin; lateral line high, following dorsal profile; scales small and easily detached, extending to cheeks and bases of vertical fins; body color pale blue to green above, silvery with a golden/yellow tinge below (Ref. 53006).
A pelagic fish forming large schools in coastal bays, inshore waters over the continental shelf and around islands at moderate depths (50 to 70 m) where it occurs throughout the year (Ref. 53006). Juveniles are found in shallow coastal waters under floating weeds; also in or near brackish estuaries (Ref. 5217). The young of less then 10 cm length are often encountered in association with medusae. Adults feed mainly on jellyfish, small fish, crustaceans and worms while juveniles are plankton feeders. Caught mainly with otter trawls, also seines; marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 53006). Its flesh is well esteemed.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cervigón, F., 1994. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 3. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 295 p. (Ref. 13628)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.8 - 27.4, mean 24.2 °C (based on 268 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.01322 - 0.02083), b=2.94 (2.88 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 172 [75, 404] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.59 [0.70, 3.62] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [15, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.769 [0.325, 1.930] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.4 [6.7, 76.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.3 [3.8, 65.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.03 [0.56, 1.82] mg/100g (wet weight);