Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Upeneus: Greek, ypene, -es = upper lip (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 45 m (Ref. 83903). Subtropical
Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13710)
(total): 9. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D VIII,9; pectoral fins 15-17; gill rakers 7-9 + 22-24 = 29-33; lateral line scales 33-35; body depth at first dorsal-fin origin 27-29% SL and at anus 24% SL; caudal-peduncle depth 10-12% SL; maximum head depth 23-24% SL; head depth through eye 18-22% SL; head length 29-31%SL; orbit length 6.6-9.7% SL; upper jaw length 11% SL; barbel length 16-20% SL; caudal-fin length 26-28% SL; anal-fin height 14-15% SL; pelvic-fin length 18-20% SL; pectoral-fin length 25-28% SL; first dorsal-fin height 20-22% SL; second dorsal-fin height 14-15% SL; caudal fin bars absent; mid-lateral body stripe yellow (usually not retained in preserved fish); pale brown to yellowish first dorsal-fin tip (pigmentation faintly retained or lost in preserved fish); white barbels; silvery body, dorsally darkened in fresh fish (pale to dark brown, sometimes dorsally darkened in preserved fish) (Ref. 82903).
Forms schools in coastal waters. Marketed fresh (Ref. 13710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E., F. Krupp, D.A. Jones and U. Zajonz, 1997. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. Living marine resources of Kuwait, eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. FAO, Rome. 293 p. (Ref. 13710)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00445 - 0.01956), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .