Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 70 - 140 m (Ref. 47581). Tropical
Western Pacific: Taiwan to Indonesia; also known from the Gulf of Thailand, Timor Sea and the Arafura Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47581); common length : 6.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47581)
soft rays: 14;
Vertebrae: 24. Mouth protruding forward, not downward; teeth small, slender, pointed, uniserial on jaws; membrane between jaws and cheeks densely pigmented, with a black line between anteroventral margin of eye and the lower articulation when mouth closed; lateral line incomplete, ending below base of 12th to 16th dorsal fin soft ray; body rather slender, 31-45% SL; posterior limb of maxilla short, 15-23% HL; anteroventral profile of lower jaw straight or slightly convex; no large blotch on nape or below base of dorsal fin spines (Ref. 49864). Silvery upper half with irregular grey-brown blotch and marbling (Ref. 47581).
Inhabits offshore coastal waters (Ref. 47581). Probably treated as by-catch by trawlers (Ref. 47581).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kimura, S., P.V. Dunlap, T. Peristiwady and C.R. Lavilla-Pitogo, 2003. The Leiognathus aureus complex (Perciformes: Leiognathidae) with the description of a new species. Ichthyol. Res. 50(3):221-232. (Ref. 49864)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.5 - 27.1, mean 23.9 °C (based on 123 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00201 - 0.01311), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .