Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river. More on authors: Randall & Myers.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 120 - 230 m (Ref. 10673). Tropical
Western Pacific: Mariana Islands, Guam.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10673)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 7;
Vertebrae: 24. Diagnosis: Pectoral rays 15. Gill rakers 7-8 + 28-30 (total 36-38). Body depth 3.4-3.7 in SL; head length (HL) 2.95-3.1 in SL; snout length 1.8-1.85 in HL; eye relatively large, the orbit diameter 5.2-5.6 in HL; barbels long, 1.15 in HL; third dorsal spine longest, its length 1.51.65 in HL; penultimate dorsal soft ray 1.1-1.25 in length of last dorsal ray; pectoral-fin length 1.35-1.45 in HL; pelvic-fin length 1.4-1.5 in HL. Body pale red, the edges of the scales narrowly darker red; a pink band along back below dorsal fins, broadening posteriorly, bordered above and below by red, each scale in border, especially dorsally, with a dusky dark red spot; barbels pale pink to white; the fins pale red to pink, the outer third of the second dorsal with narrow blue and yellow bands; anal fin pink with irregular narrow yellow bands; outer part of the upper caudal-fin lobe pale yellow (Re. 54393).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (36):64 p. (Ref. 54393)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16 - 21, mean 18.5 (based on 2 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00548 - 0.02637), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .