Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes
(Salmons) > Salmonidae
(Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gmelin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Polar; 0°C - ; 71°N - 44°N, 5°W - 133°W
Arctic Ocean basin, from Finland (lapland) to eastern Siberia, Alaska, and Canada eastward to Mackenzie drainage. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna). Belongs to Coregonus clupeaformis complex (Ref. 27547).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); common length : 32.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 14 years (Ref. 12193)
soft rays: 10 - 14;
Vertebrae: 58 - 63. Distinguished by the gill rakers that are longer than 20% of the interorbital width, 19 to 25 gill rakers (with modal counts of 22 or 23), and a pronounced hump behind the head in adults (Ref. 27547). Adipose fin well developed, often larger in males; axillary process present in pelvic fins (Ref. 27547). Dark brown to midnight blue above fading to silver on sides and wide beneath; no parr marks in young (Ref. 27547).
Inhabits coastal waters near shore (Ref. 5723), lower reaches of rivers with slow current, large lakes with tributaries, floodplain lakes, deltas and estuaries, brackish waters (Ref. 59043). Migrates up to more than 1,200 km inland for spawning (Ref. 5723). Overwinters near river mouths (Ref. 5723). There are non-migratory freshwater populations. Adults feed mostly on mollusks, crustaceans and chironomid larvae (Ref. 28219).
Upstream spawning migrations may be extensive but some populations seldom venture far upstream and still others may never go to sea at all (Ref. 593). Mature adults migrate upstream as early as June to spawn in October. It is assumed that the young hatch in late winter and spring, subsequently moving downstream, to return as mature adults 4 to 6 years later (Ref. 27547).
Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Bratislava, 52/Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00335 - 0.00903), b=3.24 (3.10 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=3-14; tmax=14; Fec=8,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 17.3 [8.3, 33.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.277 [0.167, 0.481] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.1 [16.0, 18.2] % ; Omega3 = 1.02 [0.38, 2.87] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.4 [8.8, 64.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.75 [1.88, 29.71] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.464 [0.338, 0.648] mg/100g (wet weight);