Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes
(Salmons) > Salmonidae
(Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335); nasus: nasus refering to shape of nose (Ref. 1998). More on author: Pallas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243). Polar; 73°N - 59°N, 46°E - 102°W
Eurasia and North America: all drainages of Arctic Ocean from Volonga and Pechora to Alaska.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 71.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96339); common length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1998); max. published weight: 16.0 kg (Ref. 1998); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 59043)
soft rays: 11 - 14;
Vertebrae: 60 - 65. Distinguished by its short gill rakers, which are less than one-fifth as long as the interorbital width, and the rounded to flat profile of the head (Ref. 27547). Adipose fin fairly large; axillary process present in the pelvic fins (Ref. 27547). Olive-brown to nearly black on back; sides silvery, often with a gray cast; belly white to yellowish; fins usually rather gray in adults, pale in young (Ref. 27547).
Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Lowland river and lakes (Ref. 59043) but most frequently in streams (Ref. 5723). Lacustrine and estuarine anadromous forms exist (Ref. 593). Alevins and juveniles feed on zooplankton, adults on benthos, mainly chironomid larvae and molluscs (Ref. 1998, 59043). Males reproduce for the first time in 4-8 years, females at 5-9. Adults start upstream migration in late July - August and reach spawning sites by October - November and spawn in stretches with swift current and sand-pebble bottom, often under ice. Spawning lasts 5-7 days and fish leave spawning site soon after, migrating downstream to overwinter in deeper places of lower stretches of rivers together with older juveniles. In spring, alevins drift from spawning sites downstream with flood-water and forage in floodplain lakes and oxbows where they remain until end of summer before moving to river or reaching maturity (if lakes are large enough and do not dry out). Widely used for aquaculture in eastern Europe (Ref. 59043). Flesh is highly esteemed (Ref. 1998). Sold fresh, dried, or smoked (Ref. 1998).
Mature adults make upstream spawning migrations beginning as early as June and may extend to September or later (Ref. 28214, 28852, 28855, 28857) and move back downstream after spawning and overwinter in deep parts of the rivers or in estuaries (Ref. 27547). Young hatch in the spring and move downward (Ref. 27547).
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (20):183 p. (Ref. 3814)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00448 - 0.00615), b=3.21 (3.17 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 7.8 (5.4 - 8.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.10-0.30; tm=7; tmax=15; Fec=10,000).
Prior r = 0.34, 95% CL = 0.22 - 0.51, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (65 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 12.8 [5.4, 23.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.325 [0.159, 0.613] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.4 [16.2, 18.5] % ; Omega3 = 1.13 [0.40, 3.25] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.9 [6.2, 51.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.91 [1.79, 40.72] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.48 [0.34, 0.73] mg/100g (wet weight);