Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 45 m (Ref. 43588), usually 1 - 20 m (Ref. 43588). Subtropical; 23°S - 41°S
Southwest Atlantic: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to at least Mar de la Plata, Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 62.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111977); common length : 32.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 43588)
soft rays: 52 - 59;
Vertebrae: 35 - 36. Body shape oval, with the greatest breadth 2.5 times in length. Eyes are on the left side, close together, and equally in advance. Teeth are in a single series, sharply pointed. Dorsal fin origin aligned with eyes. Lateral line arched over the pectoral fin. Eye side of the body slightly rough, with finely ciliated scales (Ref. 3157).
Enters coastal lagoons (Ref. 36453). Feeds on pelagic and benthic species of crustaceans (penaeids and brachyurans), and of lesser importance, fishes (Ref. 43588).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Figueiredo, J.L. and N.A. Menezes, 2000. Manual de peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. VI.Teleostei (5). Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. Brazil. 116 p. (Ref. 36453)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.4 - 22.8, mean 16.1 °C (based on 118 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00427 - 0.01174), b=3.12 (2.98 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 9.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 64.3 [27.4, 147.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.3 [0.7, 2.4] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.2 [12.6, 18.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.463 [0.192, 1.073] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.6 [10.9, 68.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.9 [4.0, 91.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.734 [0.443, 1.257] mg/100g (wet weight);