Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335).
Issue on validity of subspecies: subspecies considered as valid in FB, synonymized with the species Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Mar. 2011: Ref. 86697). Please send references, or more studies are needed.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 100 - 300 m (Ref. 4845). Temperate; 47°N - 41°N, 27°E - 42°E
Black Sea and Sea of Azov.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. )
Occurs over mud, sand and gravel bottoms of the continental shelf. Feeds on small benthic invertebrates (crustaceans, worms and mollusks) (Ref. 4845).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hureau, J.-C., 1986. Mullidae. p. 877-882. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4845)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= No PD50 data [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00540 - 0.01343), b=3.06 (2.93 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .