Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 47°N - 37°N, 7°E - 19°E
Europe: Adriatic basin from Tronto to Krka drainages(Italy, Switzerland, Slovenia and Croatia). Introduced to Tyrrhenian slope of central Italy.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 14 - 15.95 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31730); max. published weight: 6.0 kg (Ref. 31730)
(total): 8. Diagnosed from its congeners in Apennine Peninsula and Adriatic Sea basin by the following characters: lateral line with 58-77 + 3-4 scales; back plain and sides finely dotted in individuals larger than 15 cm SL: paired fins tinged with grey but without conspicuous spots; peritoneum white; last simple dorsal ray feebly spinous, flexible, finely serrated posteriorly; and lower lip with a median lobe (Ref. 59043).
A long-lived species which inhabits running waters of the hill and lowland zones of rivers (Ref. 26100). Also occurs in lakes. Feeds on benthic invertebrates, small fish and algae (Ref. 59043). Threatened by overfishing (Ref. 26100).
"Males assemble at spawning grounds and follow ripe females, often with much splashing, to shallow rifles. Females deposit non-sticky eggs into excavations made in gravel" (Ref. 59043).
Bianco, P.G., 1995. Mediterranean endemic freshwater fishes of Italy. Biol. Conserv. 72:159-170. (Ref. 12291)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00526 - 0.01511), b=2.95 (2.81 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.51 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-4; Fec=1,052-8,445).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .