Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acropomatiformes
(Oceanic basses) > Pempheridae
Etymology: Pempheris: Greek, pempheris = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335); adusta: Name from Latin 'flavi' meaning yellow, and 'cycla' for ring, referring to the bright yellow ring encircling the pupil, which is often still apparent in recently preserved specimens. More on author: Bleeker.
Pempheris flavicycla flavicycla was considered as synonym of P. adusta by Koeda et al., 2014 (Ref. 95675) but valid according to Randall et al., 2014 (Ref.95583); and Pempheris flavicycla marisrubri as synonym of P. erythraea in Golani et al., 2018 Ref. 120578. Please send references, or more studies are needed.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 20 m (Ref. 95675), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific: widely distributed and abundant in the Indian Ocean (including the Red Sea to Andaman Sea) to the Pacific; not in the Mediterranean Sea. Regional variations present in the Indian, Andaman and the Pacific.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6645)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 36 - 45;
Vertebrae: 25. This species is distinguished by the following characters: pectoral fin base with a faint blackish spot; pored lateral-line scales 56-64 (Andaman Sea 52-58; Pacific 51-62); scale rows above lateral line 4.5-6.5 (usually 5.5; Andaman Sea and the Pacific Ocean, 4.5-5.5, usually 4.5); circumpeduncular scales 14-18 (usually 16); outer edge of anal fin with a distinct blackish band (rarely faint or only anterior half prominent; usually none in Pacific); posterior edge of caudal fin with a blackish band (caudal fin whole yellowish in Andaman Sea); upper-jaw length 14.2-15.6% SL; body depth 41.4-45.4% SL. Individuals in the Pacific are distinguished from its congeners by the following set of characters: ctenoid and deciduous scales are thin and semicircular in shape; 51-62 pored lateral-line scales; 4.5-5.5 (usually 4.5) scale rows above lateral line; pectoral fin base with a faint blackish spot; anal fin usually have no blackish outer margin; anal fin base with a dusky band (Ref. 95675).
This fish is common on coral reefs (Ref. 6645); forming aggregations in caves or crevices or under overhangs (Ref. 48636) by day, but a few may at times be seen in the open, close to the shelter of reefs. This species is also observed forming small groups with Myripristis murdjan at 0.5-1 m below the surface. At night, it is known to feed on zooplankton (Ref. 94773). Spawning occur during April to June, and is year-round in Okinawa I. (Koeda et al., in press - in Ref. 95675). Spawning occurred after sunset with individuals larger than 11 cm SL joining the spawning group (Ref. 95675). Flesh is edible (Ref. 12484).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Koeda, K., T. Yoshino, H. Imai and K. Tachinara, 2014. A review of the genus Pempheris (Perciformes, Pempheridae) of the Red Sea, with description of a new species. Zootaxa 3793(3):301-330. (Ref. 95675)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Aquarium: commercial; bait: usually
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.7 - 29.2, mean 28.2 °C (based on 3783 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00651 - 0.03684), b=3.00 (2.79 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 54.5 [29.7, 102.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.07 [0.60, 1.83] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.4, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.204 [0.117, 0.351] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.6 [6.3, 26.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 39.3 [10.2, 144.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.09 [0.68, 1.75] mg/100g (wet weight);