Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acropomatiformes
(Oceanic basses) > Epigonidae
Etymology: Epigonus: Greek, epi = over, in front + Greek, gonio = angle (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 75 - 1200 m (Ref. 4738), usually 300 - 800 m (Ref. 4738). Deep-water; 65°N - 43°S
North Atlantic: Iceland to the Canary Islands and Corner Seamounts. One specimen off North America (Ref. 7321). Southeast Atlantic, Indian and Southwest Pacific: Walvis Ridge off southwestern Africa to New Zealand.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 56.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5755); common length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. reported age: 104 years (Ref. 39263)
(total): 7 - 8;
soft rays: 9. No opercular spines. 8 spines on first dorsal fin (Ref. 31632). Snout blunt, eye large. Mouth large, lower jaw equaling or slightly protruding beyond upper jaw. Pyloric caeca 21-34. Brown-violet or black, iridescent in life.
Adults benthic or benthopelagic on the continental slopes; juveniles pelagic (Ref. 7321). Found on soft bottoms (Ref. 27121). Non-territorial. Carnivorous, feed on small fishes and planktonic invertebrates.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Maugé, L.A. and G.F. Mayer, 1990. Apogonidae. p. 714-718. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7321)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.6 - 13.8, mean 8.9 °C (based on 755 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.01160 - 0.03276), b=2.98 (2.83 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 28.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tmax=104).
Prior r = 0.14, 95% CL = 0.08 - 0.26, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 10.2 [5.0, 20.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.239 [0.137, 0.444] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [16.8, 18.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.327 [0.179, 0.597] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.4 [7.6, 48.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 30.9 [7.4, 121.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.341 [0.227, 0.524] mg/100g (wet weight);