Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Quoy & Gaimard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 86 m (Ref. 10879), usually 1 - 50 m (Ref. 10879). Tropical; 25°N - 40°S, 89°W - 30°W (Ref. 26268)
Western Atlantic: Caribbean (Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), south to Uruguay.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10879)
Occurs in brackish waters, bays and coves (Ref. 36453). Reported from depths between 247.05 and 274.5 m (Ref. 26912).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 1991. Western Atlantic tonguefishes of the Symphurus plagusia complex (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes), with descriptions of two new species. Fish. Bull. 89(2):247-287. (Ref. 10879)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.3 - 28, mean 27.3 °C (based on 542 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00407 (0.00341 - 0.00486), b=3.19 (3.14 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100).