Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 50 - 121 m (Ref. 58496), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 52°N - 25°N, 117°E - 156°E
Northwest Pacific: Yellow Sea, East China Sea, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, Pacific coast of Japan to northern Kuril Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 56.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 106388); max. published weight: 1.7 kg (Ref. 106388)
Found in the sublittoral zone (Ref. 11230). Minimum depth reported at 50 m (Ref. 11230).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Yamada, U., S. Shirai, T. Irie, M. Tokimura, S. Deng, Y. Zheng, C. Li, Y.U. Kim and Y.S. Kim, 1995. Names and illustrations of fishes from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Overseas Fishery Cooperation Foundation, Tokyo, Japan. 288 p. (Ref. 11230)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.4 - 21.8, mean 16.8 °C (based on 67 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00388 - 0.01125), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.7 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 47.9 [24.5, 102.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.253 [0.161, 0.463] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [16.4, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.611 [0.285, 1.694] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.6 [11.6, 59.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.4 [5.2, 37.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.509 [0.361, 0.750] mg/100g (wet weight);