Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 761 m (Ref. 50550), usually 50 - 200 m (Ref. 28160). Temperate
North Pacific: Sea of Japan from Korea to Tatar Strait, Sea of Okhotsk from mouth of Amur River to Aniva Bay off Cape Terpeniya, Pacific off Hokkaido to Kuril Islands and southeastern Kamchatka, northern and eastern Bering Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 66.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 115020)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 35 - 39;
Vertebrae: 48 - 52. Pectoral fin shallowly notched; caudal fin broad, posterior margin rounded, dorsal and ventral notches on caudal fin usually present (Ref. 28160). Body color extremely variable - gray, light brown, brown, spotted, speckled, dusted, striped, mottled, reticulated and plain patterns; dorsal and anal fins with the same color pattern as body or blackish; caudal fin with 2 or 3 broad dark bands, with several irregular dark bars, or entirely blackish (Ref. 28160). Eye silvery, when fresh (Ref. 28160).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.2 - 8.8, mean 3 °C (based on 633 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00371 - 0.01232), b=3.16 (3.00 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .