Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 5 - 640 m (Ref. 6871), usually 100 - 300 m (Ref. 114953). Temperate; 30°S - 44°S, 126°E - 154°E (Ref. 114953)
Southeast Indian Ocean and Southwest Pacific: Australia (including New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871)
Found on sand or mud bottoms, occasionally near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Feeds on amphipods, shrimp, and worms (Ref. 12951). Produces 1-8 (normally 3) pups during each gestation. Both sexes mature at ca. 20-21 cm TL; born at 9-12 cm TL (Ref. 114953)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 11.7 - 16.6, mean 14.2 °C (based on 82 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00472 - 0.02924), b=2.88 (2.67 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.48 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100).