Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Zoarcoidei
(Eelpouts and pricklebacks) > Zoarcidae
(Eelpouts) > Zoarcinae
Etymology: Zoarces: Greek, zoarkes, -es = that gives life (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Kner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 50550). Temperate
Northwest Pacific: Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the eastern coast of Hokkaido (Ref. 559); also in China (Ref. 11954).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 117088)
Inhabits continental shelves from the littoral zone to about 300 m, where these may enter brackish water during early winter spawning migrations (Ref. 11954).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.5 - 18.8, mean 12.5 °C (based on 124 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00295 (0.00150 - 0.00581), b=3.08 (2.89 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=9-125).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .