Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 90 - 198 m (Ref. 58302). Deep-water
North Pacific: southern Japan (Ref. 559) and Hawaii (Ref. 31383).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31383)
Benthopelagic or near crevices and caves (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E. and K.K.P. Lim (eds.), 2000. A checklist of the fishes of the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. (8):569-667. (Ref. 36648)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.5 - 21, mean 19.1 °C (based on 60 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00423 - 0.02715), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .