Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Macrouridae
(Grenadiers or rattails)
Etymology: Hymenocephalus: Named for its transparent membrane-like head covering (‘‘hymen head’’) and fragile nature of head bones (Ref. 100825). More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 220 - 810 m (Ref. 41299), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Western Pacific: southern Japan to the Philippines.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is distinguished by the following characters: pelvic fin rays 11 (rarely 12); pectoral fin rays 13-15; projecting snout, 20-25% HL; no barbel; moderate orbit diameter, 30-33% HL; infraorbital width 13-15% HL; moderately long preopercular supporter, with obtuse angle at rear margin, 3-5% HL; 20-26 gill rakers; ventral striae reaching to ½ distance from pelvic fin bases to periproct; otolith has moderately high predorsal lobe, with colliculi separated, widely placed across collum, terminating at some distance from anterior and posterior rims of otolith; otolith length to height (OL:OH), 1.05-1.1; total colliculum length to pseudocolliculum length (TCL:PCL), 2.4-2.6 (Ref. 98298).
Minimum depth from Ref. 26282.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.9 - 13, mean 9.3 °C (based on 172 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00209 (0.00101 - 0.00430), b=3.19 (3.01 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .