Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 2 - 4992 m (Ref. 50610), usually 500 - 2000 m. Deep-water; 65°N - 46°S, 180°W - 180°E
Worldwide in tropical to temperate seas. In the western Atlantic it is also known from the Flemish Cap (Ref. 5951).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5951)
soft rays: 7 - 9;
Vertebrae: 28. Body uniformly blackish or dark blackish brown (Ref. 27363). Lateral line an open groove, bridged by scales at intervals. Swim bladder present. Juveniles: long cephalic and preopercular spine; big eye; teeth on jaws small, multiserial on premaxilaries; no teeth on palatine and vomer; gill rakers long and slender. Adult: no cephalic and preopercular spines; eye small; gill rakers tooth-like in groups on bony bases.
Bathypelagic (Ref. 58426). Adults occur mainly between 500 and 2,000 m, but ranging from near the surface (young) to 5,000 m. Form schools, swim in small groups or solitary. Carnivorous (Ref. 27155), feeding on crustaceans when young and on fish mainly when adults (Ref. 4737). Serve as food for pelagic fishes such as tuna, albacore, and marlin (Ref. 5951). Oviparous, with planktonic larvae (Ref. 36624).
Post, A., 1986. Anoplogasteridae. p. 767-768. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4737)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.3 - 9.1, mean 4 °C (based on 5006 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax > 3; K=0.86 questionable).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .