Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae
Etymology: Bathyraja: Greek, bathys = deep + Latin, raja, -ae = a ray (Raja sp) (Ref. 45335); smirnovi: Named for 'Mr. Smirnov', Inspector of Fishes, who collected fishes from the Sea of Okhotsk (Ref. 89865).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 100 - 1000 m. Temperate; - 36°N (Ref. 89865)
North Pacific: Sea of Okhotsk, Kuril Islands, and the Sea of Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 102 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89865)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is distinguished from all other members of Arctoraja by the absence of a complete row of middorsal thorns and with the ridge of clasper poorly developed (vs. strongly developed). It is further distinguished from B. parmifera which occasionally lacks middorsal thorns by having a narrow interdorsal space 0.1-1.4% TL (vs. 1.0-3.9% TL), distal projection of the ventral marginal projects directly distally (vs. distolaterally), ventral terminal lanceolate (vs. tear-drop shaped), dorsal and ventral marginals extending farther distally to distal tip of dorsal terminal 3 (vs. extending to about a quarter the length of dorsal terminal 2); from B. panthera by its narrower interdorsal length (vs. 1.4-3.1% TL), anterior portion of body shorter and narrower (vs. longer and wider), tail shorter (vs. longer), single cranial fontanelle (vs. separate anterior and posterior fontanelles), ventral terminal lanceolate (vs. tear-drop shaped), dorsal and ventral marginals extending farther distally to distal tip of dorsal terminal 3 (vs. extending to about a quarter the length of dorsal terminal 2); from B. simoterus by having fewer vertebrae 118-127 (vs. 131), fewer precaudal vertebrae 31-38 (vs. 41), larger mouth size 8.3-11.6% TL (vs. 8.1-9.1% TL), neurocranium with 1 fontanelle (vs. 2), internal carotid foramina close together in a single pit (vs. widely separated), scapulocoracoid with 5 foramina, anterior- and posteriormost larger than 3 intermediates (vs. 3 foramina, more posterior each slightly smaller), and pelvic girdle with 2 obturator foramina close together (vs. widely spaced) (Ref. 89865).
Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 12.4-15.0 cm long and 8.7-9.0 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 41253). Depth range given by H. Ishihara (pers.comm. 07/07). Reported to feed primarily on amphipods, decapods, fishes, euphausids, and squid on Yamato Bank in the Sea of Japan. Maximum length reported 116 cm TL (Ref, 89865).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.6 - 3.8, mean 1.6 °C (based on 122 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00254 - 0.01037), b=3.11 (2.94 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .